Small Business Owners Need Tax Managemen Collection Software

Should you be your independent venture vender, getting simple to utilize exact gathering PC programming may make yourself less troublesome. About all entrepreneurs started their organizations in view of a gratefulness for their thing or maybe organizations. In the event that the mentor is persuaded fundamentally inside a scholarly school of thought, he or she may turn a private or maybe rental school to profit teaching understudies by methods for this procedure. In the occasion a decent designer longings to showcase her or his most avant-garde contraption on the net, he or she will probably need to assemble pay charges to work together. In the event that the creator exchanges a fresh out of the plastic new line of garments, pay charges will probably should be acquired have the capacity to pay out the costa rica government it is great expound on.

Educators, innovators, and in addition incline originators may not appreciate data innovation strategies. They may worship their undergrads, be seeing that inventive seeing that might be, and will outline and style terrific clothing that customers appreciate. Keeping in mind the end goal to profit from other gratefulness, that they should submit to business and additionally data innovation laws in the landscape with respect to require gathering. Programming bundles may make that typically tedious process conceivable.

Endeavor must have on many tops to keep their organizations above water. They in many cases must be deals specialists, administrators of staff individuals, and also brilliant handle experts. Sometimes that they perhaps should be janitors of their own one of a kind spots. One more head wear they should have on so as to keep Uncle sam pleased will be that of a bookkeeper. Or maybe then coming back to have the capacity to school to discover to have the capacity to emergency figures, they can introduce a simple to utilize impose gathering PC programming procedure on their PC. The arrangement will emergency the specific figures to enable them to offer regard for more prominent wonderful assignments of running their organizations.

You’ll discover numerous wage assesses that entrepreneurs should assemble and in addition pay out to work together. Nourished, state, and in addition city wage charges will be gotten or potentially paid for, in light of the business structure. In the occasion you’ll discover staff individuals, it will have finance salary assessments to get and also pay out month-to-month, quarterly or maybe every year. In the occasion things are being accessible, it will have a part thanks upon all stock accessible.

It is valuable to have bookkeeper or maybe clerk serving being a guide while including the specific impose accumulation PC programming to the organizations exercises. At the point when your independent company dealer has the hold in the PC design, he or she may accumulate or maybe pay out pay charges all alone. Till that time, it can be fundamental to have help. No one cravings to get included trouble alongside Uncle sam by incorrectly deciding salary charges that must be acquired or maybe paid for. With the assistance of a guide and in addition PC planArticle Submission, this is a more straightforward make a beeline for have the capacity to have on while maintaining a business.

Business to Business Partnership Opportunities

There are a few sorts of business to business organizations that an entrepreneur may seek after keeping in mind the end goal to enhance their business. The fundamental goal behind most business connections is to discover new client leads and change over them into expanded deals and income for both partaking organizations. Consider these four essential sorts of business to business associations so as to accomplish the objective of expanded deals and income including: providers, clients, affiliates or organizations with noteworthy existing deals channels and additionally merchants. Each sort of association has its own one of a kind arrangement of favorable circumstances and difficulties for effectively actualizing and keeping up, along these lines it’s vital to assess each sort to comprehend which is to your greatest advantage to seek after.

Providers

Making business associations with providers for the most part bodes well and can prompt interesting business openings. Numerous providers are in an extremely focused condition and always need to discover new channels to offer their items. Generally speaking providers will give a business accomplice extraordinary evaluating, sped up client administration and business referrals when openings that are out of their extension introduce themselves. Be that as it may; there are a few hindrances with adjusting too intimately with a solitary provider. It is suggested that you keep your provider association understandings as open and adaptable as conceivable to enable numerous organizations to exist in a similar space hence staying away from value spikes or item inaccessibility because of unexpected accomplice issues.

Clients

The best sorts of business referrals originated from existing clients. Give an income offer or extraordinary valuing for clients that can convey drives that transform into new customers. Building up a motivator program for clients that make referrals is a win-win circumstance. Frequently a basic markdown can keep your business at the cutting edge of the client’s mind when their meeting with somebody that fits your objective market.

Affiliates or Agents

Numerous organizations that have expansive databases of potential clients will effectively offer an item through their business channels for a charge as well as an income share. Building organizations with affiliates can rapidly grow an organization’s capacity to contact the market. Affiliates will contribute time and assets to showcase their accomplice’s items and set their business compel to work offering the item. Private companies with constrained staff to effectively offer can profit incredibly from these sorts of organization bargains.

Merchants

Finding different merchants that offer a supplementing item is the correct organization answer for an organization that without anyone else’s input has an item that is not the full arrangement that a client is hoping to buy. A case is a PC equipment producer collaborating with an organization that makes programming to do one of a kind assignments that a client needs.

As an entrepreneur looking for extra arrangement stream, it is essential to assess the majority of the business to business organizations that are feasible for your organization. Despite whether the emphasis is on merchants, affiliates, providers, or existing customersHealth Fitness Articles, if appropriately executed business to business organizations are one of the best systems for business development.

Scope of email apps in the business managemen

In the step by step developing innovation and framework, each individual needs to build up their own particular business to win benefits and conveys radical changes to the world with their items or things. They need to demonstrate their fortitude in the market with their imaginative thoughts and progressive plans. In an independent company or any immense association, the innovation assumes a fundamental part in administration, showcasing, generation and in numerous different fields. There are numerous applications or programming utilities that are intended for the business visionaries to deal with their distinctive business exercises. These applications conveys a simple to oversee stage to the clients for dealing with the different business undertakings.

In any business, the email accounts help them to effortlessly deal with the contacts, connections, information and numerous different things. To run the email accounts, different email applications accessible on the web that assistance the clients to explore their contacts or different errands in a simple and fast way. There are many locales on the web that give free business administration programming to the clients. The clients can deal with their business exercises by means of these applications. They can peruse Windows programming download or other stage applications from the locales to deal with the diverse business exercises.

How about we take a brisk view at the components of the email applications:

Smooth work in a hurry

They give a simple to oversee stage to the clients that assistance them handle the errands from anyplace, whenever. The clients can check sends, answer them, forward, or a great deal more in a solitary touch through these applications. It supports the efficiency of the business in basic strides. The clients can deal with different records at once in the applications, for example, individual mail or expert mail account in a solitary application.

Distributed storage and sharing

These applications give the choices to spare the information in the distributed storage. The clients can spare the in the cloud records, for example, archives, documents, pictures, connections et cetera. It causes the clients to get to their information whenever and at any area inside a couple of minutes. All the more thus, they can share the connections from the distributed storage for anybody in straightforward strides that outcomes in snappy route and increment the efficiency of the business.

Talk or gatherings

The clients can talk exclusively or make a gathering of a few people to direct a meeting. There are numerous alternatives in the applications that assistance the clients to rapidly speak with customers or different people. They can settle eye to eye gatherings by means of these applications. They can deal with the calender passages or arrangement dates in the applications.

What Business Integration Can Do For Your Business

In the event that innovation is a medium that you use to do your association’s objectives, having business reconciliation is prescribed. This is particularly valid in an industry that is driven by savage rivalry. Having the capacity to react quickly to client’s requests is significant to progress. Applications, for example, EBI, EAI, ELI, EDI and EII have demonstrated supportive in permitting multi-entrusting.

It is regular for each developing association to always refresh its innovation. As we proceed onward to the cutting edge time, new requests call for new items and administrations. With a specific end goal to adapt in a quick paced showcase, new applications are required. Subsequently, you introduce the most recent programming.

In spite of the fact that practically application is crucial to your association’s execution, it unexpectedly brings forth a hole. The crevice extends each time another application or programming is presented. This can posture dangers to the association since the crevice backs off the procedure of profitability.

To address this issue, business joining gives not just a specialized arrangement. It turns into a medium to support or even outperform your association’s execution. With great business coordination programming, you are guaranteed adaptability in appropriately conveying your item or administration. This puts your association on the forefront of your industry.

There are many coordinating administrations that business joining programming offers. Each implies to regulating to mechanical obstacles, for example, inward informing framework and disorderly information from each database introduce in the framework.

Reconciliation arrangements ought to be tended to from two points of view, in particular, business procedure and innovative requirements for operation. Business procedure is driven by business strategies such union, extension, procurement and merger. It is an outward concentration, since it should react to the business condition. Mechanical advance is the thing that it targets.

Practical requirements for operation are driven by innovation as it covers application interface, prepare redesign and information get to. The business reconciliation programming centers around the internal condition to react to operational requests. Its objective is defense of business. Every point of view is absolutely uninformed of each other’s presence that an absence of business mix can be exorbitant in time and funds.

Numerous business procedure experts see the centrality to consolidate the two points of view to make a circumstance and approach most appropriate for your association. The endeavor application reconciliation concentrates on making a basic system that has layers of mix.

There are many layers of frameworks coordination to give answers for your associations. The regular are information combination, Partner incorporation and Enterprise joining.

Business to Business Partnership Opportunities

There are a few sorts of business to business organizations that an entrepreneur may seek after keeping in mind the end goal to enhance their business. The primary goal behind most business connections is to discover new client leads and change over them into expanded deals and income for both taking an interest organizations. Consider these four essential sorts of business to business organizations so as to accomplish the objective of expanded deals and income including: providers, clients, affiliates or organizations with huge existing deals channels as well as merchants. Each sort of association has its own novel arrangement of points of interest and difficulties for effectively actualizing and keeping up, along these lines it’s essential to assess each sort to comprehend which is to your greatest advantage to seek after.

Providers

Making business associations with providers for the most part bodes well and can prompt one of a kind business openings. Numerous providers are in an extremely focused condition and continually need to discover new channels to offer their items. Generally speaking providers will give a business accomplice unique estimating, sped up client administration and business referrals when openings that are out of their extension introduce themselves. Notwithstanding; there are a few impediments with adjusting too intimately with a solitary provider. It is suggested that you keep your provider association understandings as open and adaptable as conceivable to enable numerous organizations to exist in a similar space along these lines staying away from value spikes or item inaccessibility because of unexpected accomplice issues.

Clients

The best sorts of business referrals originated from existing clients. Give an income offer or uncommon estimating for clients that can convey drives that transform into new customers. Building up a motivation program for clients that make referrals is a win-win circumstance. Regularly a basic markdown can keep your business at the bleeding edge of the client’s mind when their meeting with somebody that fits your objective market.

Affiliates or Agents

Numerous organizations that have extensive databases of potential clients will effectively offer an item through their business channels for an expense as well as an income share. Building organizations with affiliates can rapidly grow an organization’s capacity to connect with the market. Affiliates will contribute time and assets to advertise their accomplice’s items and set their business drive to work offering the item. Private companies with restricted staff to effectively offer can profit enormously from these sorts of organization bargains.

Things to Consider When Hiring Financial Advisor

When you are searching for monetary counsel Brisbane, there are things that you ought to guarantee you set up. Realize that you didn’t accomplish all your riches overnight; subsequently, the organization you contract ought to be prepared to demonstrate responsible stewardship over your property more than whatever else. Notwithstanding, the market is loaded with cons and counselors that are just adapted towards profiting from you. In spite of the fact that it may not be anything but difficult to differentiate, the greater part of them will agree to a reasonable exhortation instead of the best. Here are a couple of things to consider before settling on your choice.

Venture prepare

You don’t what to get counsel from individuals who have no clue about what they are doing in the market. The organization you consider employing ought to have the capacity to give subtle elements specifically without utilizing language articulations to make them aggressive. Discover subtle elements on their qualities and their mishaps assuming any. Know how they will adjust your portfolio and whether they can roll out dependable money related improvements without your endorsement. This is the place your budgetary counsel Brisbane may sparkle, particularly on the off chance that they will clarify the points of interest in basic terms and with certainty. It’s additionally great to investigate their accreditations and experience. On the off chance that need be perused about the tributes from different customers.

Trustee Standards

You would prefer not to fall in the hands of conventional agents who make due with reasonable exhortation. See if the organization you consider employing will put your interests first. You don’t have to meet with a specialist who just gives appropriate medicine while there are other people who can give the best treatment. Your counsel organization must be aggressive, a trustee standard firm addresses and uncovers potential irreconcilable circumstances and they guarantee to work for the interests of customers. In this manner, it’s great to know whether they are Registered Investment Advisor (RIA).

Straightforward charges

It may not be anything but difficult to decide the aggregate cost of the venture exhortation prepare. This is on account of it’s a mystery to the speculation world and along these lines you can preclude on specific costs. Nonetheless, a trusted monetary exhortation Brisbane gives subtle elements to all expenses charged seen and inconspicuous. High expenses debase the general return of your venture portfolio. Trusted consultants concocts a reasonable and candid expense, which incorporates rate charges on resources under administration in addition to hourly expenses for monetary arranging.

Performance Management Solutions

Compelling execution administration arrangements incorporate an open cycle of correspondence and activity so that everybody in the association can comprehend and contribute toward key objectives.

Execution Management Works for Everyone

Everybody – from CEO to process assistant to provider – needs access to great data. Our adaptable, secluded PM structure is effortlessly customized to empower anybody in your association to take part in a “culture of responsibility.” Each individual screens, dissects, and oversees execution in accordance with your remarkable corporate targets. Regardless of whether you begin with one office or go full-undertaking, you’ll appreciate the speediest time to showcase and most minimal cost of possession.

What you get:

Everybody, at all levels, adjusted in support of corporate technique with the business’ most prominent adaptability, usability, and information get to – and its least TCO.

A typical client encounter against steady, exact information with a solitary, naturally created arrangement – not an interwoven of items included by means of obtaining.

Finish understanding into big business execution with complete access to any information source.

Bolster for numerous execution administration procedures with BSC-ensured scorecard innovation and open, adaptable usefulness.

Issues settled by the correct individuals with part based levels of information get to and security.

Access to ongoing information to determine issues that can hardly wait.

Arranged or ongoing dataFree Reprint Articles, as indicated by need with an adaptable information get to engineering.

How Has the Internet Impacted Market Research?

Market research is the way that companies gather information about their customers, competitors, and the effectiveness of their marketing campaigns for those of you who are wondering what it is. In recent years the internet has had a huge affect on the way that companies have been conducting their market research through the various methods that are available for them to use. Companies know that almost everyone and their dog get on the internet for one reason or another and this is a great way for them to be able to gather information about what their consumers want as well as keep an eye on what their competitors are doing. The internet is also a great way for companies to test and try different marketing campaigns before they spend millions of dollars on them. There are a few different ways that the internet has had an effect on the way that market research is conducted.

One thing that companies are able to do is called keyword research. Conducting research on different keywords is how businesses find out what words and phrases their customers are using when they are searching for the products that they are selling. This is a great advantage because it allows the company to focus on certain words and phrases that will gain them popularity. Also, if the company has a website they will be able to move their website into a better position by building links back to their site that focus on these specific keywords.

Companies can also take surveys and put up polls on different topics that will help them to get the opinion of the consumers that buy their products. This helps the company to know what they are doing right so that they can do more of it and it also helps them to gather information that they can use to make their customers happier.

A company can also easily check out what their competition is doing by looking them up. They will be able to see where their competition is getting backlinks from, and they will be able to see what methods their completion is using to be able to gain more customers. There are a lot of different tools that a company can use to be able to find out what their competition is doing on the internet very quickly and easily. One of the biggest advantages that a company has when they use the internet for market research is testing different advertising campaigns to find out which one works the best. There are a lot of different ways to advertise both online and offline and companies pay a lot of money each year to advertise their business. By doing their market research online they will be able to find out which campaign will bring them the most success before they pay out all of the money to run it.

Over the past few years the internet has dramatically affected the way that market research is being conducted. It will have an even larger affect as we move forward into the future. It will be very necessary for every company to have knowledge of Internet Marketing so that they will be able to quickly and effectively do their research online.

An Introduction to the Scientific Theory of Management

Scientific management theory was proposed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the first decade of the 20th century, is the first coherent theory of administration. According to this theory the same principles of management can be applied to all social entities. The governing policies for our homes, farms, state, business, and church, have the same underlying principles. It emphasized on improvements in the lower level of the company rather than at top management. It aimed at studying the relationship between the physical nature of work and the physiological nature of the workmen. It stressed upon specialization, predictability, technical competence and rationality for improving the organizational efficiency and economy.

PRINCIPLES

Taylor gave the following four principles which according to him can be used universally:

-Construct a science for each element of a man’s work.

-Scientifically select, train, teach and develop workmen.

-Management should fully cooperate with workers.

-The division of work and responsibility between management and the workers must be shared equally.

Scientific management, according to Taylor, involves a complete mental revolution on the part of workers towards their duties, work, fellow men and their employers; and on the part of managers, towards their employees and their problems.

TECHNIQUES

The techniques of scientific management facilitate the application of principles of scientific management mentioned below:

FUNCTIONAL FOREMANSHIP: Under this, a worker is supervised and guided by eight functional foremen. Four of these are responsible for planning viz. Order-of-work-and-route-clerk, Instruction-card clerk, Time-and-cost clerk, Shop Clerk. The other four are responsible for execution and serve on shop floor namely, Gang boss, speed boss, inspector and Repair boss.

MOTION STUDY: It involves the observation of all the motions comprised in a particular job and then determination of best set of motions.

TIME STUDY: It is used to determine the standard time for completion of work.

DIFFRENTIAL PIECE RATE PLAN: Under this plan, a worker is paid a low piece rate up to a standard, a large bonus at the standard and a higher piece rate above the standard.

EXCEPTION PRINCIPLE: It involves setting up a large daily task by the management, with reward for achieving targets and penalty for not meeting it.

CRITICISM/OPPOSITION

Scientific management came to be criticized and opposed by various sections for the following reasons:

-It was concentrated on the shop floor. It did not stress on the higher levels of management.

-It was criticized as a mechanistic theory of organization as it neglected the human side of the organization. It treated worker as a machine and sought to make it as efficient as machine itself.

-It was criticized on the ground that it underestimated and oversimplified human motivation by explaining human motivation in terms of monetary aspects only.

-It was also opposed by the managers due to two reasons. First, they would lose their judgment and discretion due to the adoption of scientific methods. Second, their work and responsibilities increases under Taylorism.

The Importance of Project Closeout and Review in Project Management.

Description

The well known English phrase “last but not least” could not better describe how important the project closeout phase is. Being the very last part of the project life-cycle it is often ignored even by large organizations, especially when they operate in multi-project environments. They tend to jump from one project to another and rush into finishing each project because time is pressing and resources are costly. Then projects keep failing and organizations take no corrective actions, simply because they do not have the time to think about what went wrong and what should be fixed next time. Lessons learned can be discussed at project reviews as part of the closeout phase. Closure also deals with the final details of the project and provides a normal ending for all procedures, including the delivery of the final product. This paper identifies the reasons that closeout is neglected, analyzes the best practices that could enhance its position within the business environment and suggest additional steps for a complete project closeout through continuous improvement.

Project managers often know when to finish a projects but they forget how to do it. They are so eager to complete a project that they hardly miss the completion indicators. “Ideally, the project ends when the project goal has been achieved and is ready to hand over to customer” (Wellace et. al, 2004, p156). In times of big booms and bubbles, senior management could order the immediate termination of costly projects. A characteristic example of that is Bangkok’s over investment in construction of sky-scrapers, where most of them left abandoned without finishing the last floors due to enormous costs (Tvede, 2001, p267). Projects heavily attached to time can be terminated before normal finishing point if they miss a critical deadline, such as an invitation to tender. Kerzner (2001, p594) adds some behavioural reasons for early termination such as “poor morale, human relations or labour productivity”. The violent nature of early termination is also known as ‘killing a project’ because it “involves serious career and economic consequences” (Futrel, Shafer D & Shafer L, 2002, 1078). Killing a project can be a difficult decision since emotional issues create pride within an organization and a fear of being viewed as quitters blurs managerial decisions (Heerkens, 2002, p229).

Recognition

The most direct reason that Project Closeout phase is neglected is lack of resources, time and budget. Even though most of project-based organizations have a review process formally planned, most of the times “given the pressure of work, project team member found themselves being assigned to new projects as soon as a current project is completed” (Newell, 2004). Moreover, the senior management often considers the cost of project closeout unnecessary. Sowards (2005) implies this added cost as an effort “in planning, holding and documenting effective post project reviews”. He draws a parallel between reviews and investments because both require a start-up expenditure but they can also pay dividends in the future.

Human nature avoids accountability for serious defects. Therefore, members of project teams and especially the project manager who has the overall responsibility, will unsurprisingly avoid such a critique of their work if they can. As Kerzner (2001, p110) observe, “documenting successes is easy. Documenting mistakes is more troublesome because people do not want their names attached to mistakes for fear of retribution”. Thomset (2002, p260) compares project reviews with the ‘witch hunts’ saying that they can be “one of the most political and cynical of all organizational practices where the victims (the project manager and the team) are blamed by senior management”. While he identifies top management as the main responsible party for a failure, Murray (2001) suggest that the project manager “must accept ultimate responsibility, regardless of the factors involved”. A fair-minded stance on these different viewpoints would evoke that the purpose of the project review is not to find a scapegoat but to learn from the mistakes. After all, “the only true project failures are those from which nothing is learned” (Kerzner, 2004, p303).

Analysis

When the project is finished, the closeout phase must be implemented as planned. “A general rule is that project closing should take no more than 2% of the total effort required for the project” (Crawford, 2002, p163). The project management literature has many different sets of actions for the last phase of the project life cycle. Maylor (2005, p345) groups the necessary activities into a six step procedure, which can differ depending on the size and the scope of the project:

1. Completion

First of all, the project manager must ensure the project is 100% complete. Young (2003, p256) noticed that in the closeout phase “it is quite common to find a number of outstanding minor tasks from early key stages still unfinished. They are not critical and have not impeded progress, yet they must be completed”. Furthermore, some projects need continuing service and support even after they are finished, such as IT projects. While it is helpful when this demand is part of the original statement of requirements, it is often part of the contract closeout. Rosenau and Githens (2005, p300) suggest that “the contractor should view continuing service and support as an opportunity and not merely as an obligation” since they can both learn from each other by exchanging ideas.

2. Documentation

Mooz et. al (2003, p160) defines documentation as “any text or pictorial information that describe project deliverables”. The importance of documentation is emphasized by Pinkerton (2003, p329) who notes that “it is imperative that everything learned during the project, from conception through initial operations, should be captured and become an asset”. A detailed documentation will allow future changes to be made without extraordinary effort since all the aspects of the project are written down. Documentation is the key for well-organized change of the project owner, i.e. for a new investor that takes over the project after it is finished. Lecky-Thompson (2005, p26) makes a distinction between the documentation requirements of the internal and the external clients since the external party usually needs the documents for audit purposes only. Despite the uninteresting nature of documenting historical data, the person responsible for this task must engage actively with his assignment.

3. Project Systems Closure

All project systems must close down at the closeout phase. This includes the financial systems, i.e. all payments must be completed to external suppliers or providers and all work orders must terminate (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2004, p13). “In closing project files, the project manager should bring records up to date and make sure all original documents are in the project files and at one location” (Arora, 1995). Maylor (2005, 347) suggest that “a formal notice of closure should be issued to inform other staff and support systems that there are no further activities to be carried out or charges to be made”. As a result, unnecessary charges can be avoided by unauthorized expenditure and clients will understand that they can not receive additional services at no cost.

4. Project Reviews

The project review comes usually comes after all the project systems are closed. It is a bridge that connects two projects that come one after another. Project reviews transfer not only tangible knowledge such as numerical data of cost and time but also the tacit knowledge which is hard to document. ‘Know-how’ and more important ‘know-why’ are passed on to future projects in order to eliminate the need for project managers to ‘invent the wheel’ from scratch every time they start a new project. The reuse of existing tools and experience can be expanded to different project teams of the same organization in order to enhance project results (Bucero, 2005). Reviews have a holistic nature which investigate the impact of the project on the environment as a whole. Audits can also be helpful but they are focused on the internal of the organization. Planning the reviews should include the appropriate time and place for the workshops and most important the people that will be invited. Choosing the right people for the review will enhance the value of the meeting and help the learning process while having an objective critique not only by the team members but also from a neutral external auditor. The outcome of this review should be a final report which will be presented to the senior management and the project sponsor. Whitten (2003) also notices that “often just preparing a review presentation forces a project team to think through and solve many of the problems publicly exposing the state of their work”.

5. Disband the project team

Before reallocating the staff amongst other resources, closeout phase provides an excellent opportunity to assess the effort, the commitment and the results of each team member individually. Extra-ordinary performance should be complemented in public and symbolic rewards could be granted for innovation and creativity (Gannon, 1994). This process can be vital for team satisfaction and can improve commitment for future projects (Reed, 2001). Reviewing a project can be in the form of a reflective process, as illustrated in the next figure, where project managers “record and critically reflect upon their own work with the aim of improving their management skills and performance” (Loo, 2002). It can also be applied in problematic project teams in order to identify the roots of possible conflicts and bring them into an open discussion.

Ignoring the established point of view of disbanding the project team as soon as possible to avoid unnecessary overheads, Meredith and Mandel (2003, p660) imply that it’s best to wait as much as you can for two main reasons. First it helps to minimize the frustration that might generate a team member’s reassignment with unfavourable prospects. Second it keeps the interest and the professionalism of the team members high as it is common ground that during the closing stages, some slacking is likely to appear.

6. Stakeholder satisfaction

PMI’s PMBoK (2004, p102) defines that “actions and activities are necessary to confirm that the project has met all the sponsor, customer and other stakeholders’ requirements”. Such actions can be a final presentation of the project review which includes all the important information that should be published to the stakeholders. This information can include a timeline showing the progress of the project from the beginning until the end, the milestones that were met or missed, the problems encountered and a brief financial presentation. A well prepared presentation which is focused on the strong aspects of the projects can cover some flaws from the stakeholders and make a failure look like an unexpected success.

Next Steps

Even when the client accepts the delivery of the final product or service with a formal sign-off (Dvir, 2005), the closeout phase should not be seen as an effort to get rid of a project. Instead, the key issue in this phase is “finding follow-up business development potential from the project deliverable” (Barkley & Saylor, 2001, p214). Thus, the project can produce valuable customer partnerships that will expand the business opportunities of the organization. Being the last phase, the project closeout plays a crucial role in sponsor satisfaction since it is a common ground that the last impression is the one that eventually stays in people’s mind.

Continuous improvement is a notion that we often hear the last decade and review workshops should be involved in it. The idea behind this theory is that companies have to find new ways to sustain their competitive advantage in order to be amongst the market leaders. To do so, they must have a well-structured approach to organizational learning which in project-based corporations is materialized in the project review. Garratt (1987 in Kempster, 2005) highlighted the significance of organizational learning saying that “it is not a luxury, it is how organizations discover their future”. Linking organizational learning with Kerzner’s (2001, p111) five factors for continuous improvement we can a define a structured approach for understanding projects.

This approach can be implemented in the closeout phase, with systematic reviews for each of the above factors. Doing so, project closure could receive the attention it deserves and be a truly powerful method for continuous improvement within an organization. Finally, project closeout phase should be linked with PMI’s Organizational Project Management Maturity (OPM3) model where the lessons learned from one project are extremely valuable to other projects of the same program in order to achieve the highest project management maturity height.

References

1. A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge, 2004, 3rd Edition, Project Management Institute, USA, p102

2. Arora M, 1995, Project management: One step beyond, Civil Engineering, 65, 10, [Electronic], pp 66-68

3. Barkley & Saylor, 2001, Customer-Driven Project Management, McGraw-Hill Professional, USA, p214

4. Bucero A, 2005, Project Know-How, PM Network, May 2005 issue, [Electronic], pp 20-22

5. Crawford K, 2002, The Strategic Project Office, Marcel Dekker, USA, p163

6. Department of Veteran Affairs, 2004, Project Management Guide, Office of Information and Technology – USA Government, p13

7. Dvir D, 2005, Transferring projects to their final users: The effect of planning and preparations for commissioning on project success, International Journal of Project Management vol. 23, [Electronic], pp 257-265

8. Futrel R, Shafer D & Shafer L, 2002, Quality Software Project Management, Prentice Hall PTR, USA, p1078

9. Gannon, 1994, Project Management: an approach to accomplishing things, Records Management Quarterly, Vol. 28, Issue 3, [Electronic], pp 3-12

10. Heerkens G, 2002, Project Management, McGraw-Hill, USA, p229

11. Kempster S, 2005, The Need for Change, MSc in Project Management: Change Management module, Lancaster University, [Electronic], slide 16

12. Kerzner H, 2004, Advanced Project Management: Best Practices on Implementation, 2nd Edition, Wiley and Sons, p303

13. Kerzner H, 2001, Project Management – A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling, 7th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p594

14. Kerzner H, 2001, Strategic Planning For Project Management Using A Project Management Maturity Model, Wiley and Sons, pp 110-111

15. Lecky-Thompson G, 2005, Corporate Software Project Management, Charles River Media, USA, p26

16. Loo R, 2002, Journaling: A learning tool for project management training and team-building, Project Management Journal; Dec 2002 issue, vol. 33, no. 4, [Electronic], pp 61-66

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